University and Autonomy: High Education in the One-Party Period (1923-1946)

The higher education institutions in Turkey modeled after Europe were first established as foundations of vocational education and a new period was initiated in higher education with the establishment of the first university, namely -Darülfünun-, in the Reformation period. The -university,- which became a permanent institution in 1900 after three unsuccessful attempts in the years 1863, 1873, and 1874, was named as -Darülfünun- until the university reform in 1933. In 1924, the Republican government, which tackled the university issue, not only legalized the scientific and administrative autonomy of the universities, but it also established an autonomous administrative system by preparing an ordinance in line with the principles of the 1919 arrangement that remained in effect until 1933. Darülfünun influenced other higher educational institutions with its autonomous structure. In 1928, Higher Engineering School was also given autonomy and Higher Agricultural School was established in the form of an autonomous school on the basis of Darülfünun. In this article, after the above summarized information on the history of higher education during the first years of the Republic (1923-1946) is provided, the related studies have been added to the last part of the bibliography. Certainly there are other additional publications which have not been mentioned here. The aim of this study, which does not claim to cover all publications in full, is to present a literature evaluation on the history of higher education in Republican Turkey.


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