Literature of Geography Textbooks in the Ottoman Period and Early Years of the Republic


Geography lessons took place in programs of Mühendishâne-i Bahr-i Hümayun and Mühendishâne-i Berri Hümayun, which were the first military schools in the Ottoman state. The first geography textbooks and maps were used in these schools. Mehmed Raif Efendi's İcâletü’l-Coğrafya, Hüseyin Rıfkı Efendi's Al-Medhal fi'l- Coğrafya and Mustafa Enveri's Coğrafya Risalesi and Coğrafya can be given as the first samples of geography textbooks. After military schools, ibtidaiye, rüşdiye, idadi and high school needed various books for geography lessons in schools. The textbooks were usually translated by means of translating from European languages. Books usually carry names such as muhtasar coğrafya, coğrafya-yı umûmî, mebadi-yi coğrafya, coğrafya-yı Osmâni. In which schools the textbooks were taught, the author's role in the institution and the institution he worked in is indicated on the inner cover of books.

With the support of intellectuals like Kemal Efendi, the use of teaching materials such as maps and sphere became widespread. The state examined tools and equipment to be used in geography lessons such as course book and map-model sphere and issued a printing license to those who were eligible. Textbooks and equipment in the library were sent to all over the country in line with demands of schools. The second part of this paper contains geography textbooks literature published in Ottoman Turkish during the Ottoman state and first years of the republic. The bibliography of textbooks published before the letter reform and schools and classes where they were taught were mentioned.

Keywords: Geography, geography education, textbooks, maps, model sphere

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